Hajj and ^Umrah-Grade 5

Hajj and ^Umrah   Allah said, in Ayah 97 of Surat Al-^Imran, what means: “Allah made Hajj to the Ka^bah obligatory upon those who are able.” Hajj is among the most important matters of Islam. Performing Hajj and Umrah once in a lifetime is obligatory upon the Muslim who is free, accountable, and able. Performing them repeatedly after that time is considered sunnah. Hajj has a special merit that other acts of obedience do not have, in that it clears one of all sins, enormous and small. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Whoever performs Hajj without copulating or committing enormous sins is clear of his sins, as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him.” For this special merit to hold, one’s intention must be sincere to Allah,...

Zakah-Grade 5

Zakah   Allah said, in the Quran in Ayah 43 of Suratul-Baqarah, what means: “Perform the prayers and perform Zakah.” According to the Arabic language, Zakah means purification and growth. Islamically, it is the name for that which is paid in a specific way, as a result of having money, or one being alive. It was given this name because money grows by the blessing of giving Zakah, and because it purifies the one who gives it from being sinful. Zakah is among the major matters of Islam. During the second year after the migration, Allah made it obligatory.  Among the items that Zakah is obligatory on are: 1. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats;  2. The staple crops. These are crops that one stores to eat in other than times of necessity, like wheat, barley, and...

Fasting-Grave 5

Fasting   Allah made it obligatory upon every accountable and able Muslim to fast the month of Ramadan. Allah said in the Quran, in Ayah 183 of Suratul Baqarah, what means “He (Allah) made fasting obligatory upon you.” Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha^ban in the second year after immigration. It is a great obligation and among the most important matters of Islam. The Muslims look forward to this month because it is the month of goodness, obedience, and blessings. It is also the best month of the year, and in it is the best night of the year, the Night of Qadr. Fasting is abstaining from anything that invalidates the fast during the day, along with having made the intention during the night. It is an obligation upon...

The Friday Prayer-Grade 5

The Friday Prayer   Friday is the best day of the week. In a Hadith narrated by Muslim, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Friday is the best day on which the Sun ever rose. In it Adam was created, admitted into Paradise, and taken out of it.” Allah, ta^ala, made it obligatory to pray the Friday prayer during this day. As a result, the Muslims in all the different countries gather in the main masjid of their town to pray this prayer. The Friday Prayer is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused males. Among what is considered an Islamic excuse is for the person to be sick, in a way that going to the mosque is a serious hardship on him. It is an obligation to pray the Friday Prayer in congregation if...

Congregational Prayer-Grade 5

Congregational Prayer           The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, encouraged performing the congregational prayer. He ordered the people to pray the five prayers in congregation in a way that anyone who wants to pray in congregation can easily find the place to do so. When people gather in obedience to Allah, great benefits do occur. Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhiyy, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The congregational prayer has 27 times more reward than the prayer of an individual.” Praying every obligatory prayer in congregation is a communal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused men. Whoever wants to pray the congregational prayer steps forward to lead the others in prayer....

Invalidators of Prayer-Grade 5

Invalidators of Prayer           During prayer, the Muslim should be God-fearing and should avoid anything that invalidates his prayer. The invalidators of the prayer include: 1.The praying person uttering words which do not include mentioning Allah. Uttering two letters or any letter that carries a meaning, while remembering that one is praying, invalidates one’s prayer;  2.Performing many moves that last for the duration of one rak^ah. According to some scholars, three consecutive moves invalidate the prayer;  3.Eating, even if it is little, like a sesame seed, except if one forgets;  4.Drinking while remembering that one is in the prayer, even if it is little, like swallowing a drop of water on one’s lips;  5.Performing one move, with the purpose of playing;...

Conditions for the Validity of the Prayer-Grade 5

Conditions for the Validity of the Prayer   The conditions of prayer are the matters that are not party of the prayer, but must be satisfied before starting the prayer. There are eight conditions. 1.The first is Islam: prayer is not valid from a blasphemer;  2.The second is to be mumayyiz; in other words, to be at the age of mental discrimination, the age at which the child understands when addressed and answers when asked;  3.The third is to be pure from both ritual impurities. One must have wudu’ and be clear of the states of minor and major ritual impurity;  4.The fourth is having one’s clothes, body, place, and what one is carrying be pure. If one prays while carrying in one’s pocket a piece of cloth that had najas­-filth on it, one’s prayer is invalid;...

The Integrals of Prayer-Grade 5

The Integrals of Prayer and Its Recommended Matters           Prayer has integrals and recommended matters. The integrals are those matters that are part of the prayer, and if not done, the prayer is invalid. The recommended matters are the rewardable matters which, if left out, do not invalidate the prayer. They are done following in the footsteps of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. There are 17 integrals of prayer. 1.First, to have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer and of its obligation when obligatory, and to specify the prayer which is performed for a particular reason or time;  2.Second, to say “Allahu abkar,” hearing oneself while having the intention in the heart;  3.Third, to stand for the obligatory prayer, when able. If...

Times of Prayer-Grade 5

Times of Prayer   Allah, ta^ala said, in Ayah 103 of Suratun-Nisa’, what means: “Certainly, the [obligatory] prayers have been prescribed to the believers to be performed at specific times.” After the belief in Allah and His Messenger, the prayer is the best deed. Allah made five prayers obligatory upon every pubescent, sane Muslim within the night and day. One has to be keen to perform them. Also, one must learn how the time of each prayer begins and how it ends. The Noon Prayer (Dhuhr) begins when the sun declines westward from the middle of the sky. It ends when the shadow of an object becomes equal to the length of that object, plus the length of its shadow, when the sun has reached its zenith. The object may be a straight wooden stick that is plunged...

The Ritual Impurity-Grade 5

The Ritual Impurity and the Obligatory Purifactory Bath   The ritual impurity is of two kinds: minor ritual impurity and major ritual impurity. The minor ritual impurity is the occurrence of whatever invalidates the wudu’, such as emitting gas, urine, or feces. The major ritual impurity is the occurrence of any of the five matters that mandate the purifactory bath, which are: Emitting maniyy (semen) Sexual intercourse Menstruation Postpartum bleeding, or Giving birth There are two integrals for the purifactory obligatory bath. The first is the intention, when the water touches the first part of the body. So one intends for example: “I intend to do the obligatory purifactory bath,” or “I intend to remove the state of major ritual impurity.” The second...

Instinja’-Grade 5

Instinja’   It is obligatory to make istinja’ from every wet material emitted from the eliminatory outlets, like urine or feces. Istinja’ is performed using pure and purifying water or a solid, dry, uprooting and unrespectable material, like a stone or paper. If one wishes to perform istinja’ by water, then, when cleaning oneself from feces, one pours the water on the outlet and rubs with one’s left hand until the najas-filth is removed. This makes the place pure. If one is performing istinja’ using rocks and the like, such as paper, one must be using a solid, dry, uprooting, pure, unrespectable material, such as a rock or paper, and wipe the outlet three times. If the three wipes are not enough to clean the area, one wipes more until the place becomes...

The Invalidators of Wudu’-Grade 5

The Invalidators of Wudu’   The invalidators of wudu’ are matters which break wudu’. When one’s wudu’ is invalidated, one must make wudu’ again to pray. The invalidators are several. Materials exiting from the eliminatory outlets, such as urine, feces, gas, or stomach worms, all invalidate the wudu’. Touching the anus, vagina, or penis with one’s bare palm, or touching the skin of the marriageable woman without a barrier, also results in one’s wudu’ being invalidated. In addition, losing one’s mind by craziness, fainting, or intoxication, or sleeping without having ones buttocks firmly seated, are invalidators. If, however, one slept without a gap between one’s buttocks and the floor, then one’s wudu’ would not be invalid. The person who loses his wudu’ is...

Ablution (wudu’)-Grade 5

Ablution: Its Integrals and Recommended Matters   Ablution is a condition for the validity of prayer. Allah said in the Quran, in Ayah 6 of Suratul Ma’idah, what means, “When you want to pray, wash your face, your hands and forearms up to and including your elbows, wet wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to and including the ankles” Wudu’ has six integrals. It is not valid if any of them are left out. The first integral is the intention, which takes place in the heart. It should also be simultaneous with washing the first part of the face. One says: “I now intend to make wudu’,” or the like. Next, one washes the entire face, from the normal hairline to the chin, and from one ear to the other. After, one washes the hands, up to and including the elbows....

Purification from Najas-Filth-Grade 5

Purification from Najas-Filth   Among what is considered najas-filthy are urine, feces, blood, pus, vomit, alcohol, and the maytah, including its bones and hair. The corpse of a dead human is not najas-filthy. The najas-filth is divided into two types: detectable and undetectable. Detectable najas-filth is the najas-filth, the entity, color, taste, or smell of which is detectable, such as a drop of blood on clothing. This najas-filthy area can be purified by pouring water on it, which is pure and purifying, until the entity and properties of the najas-filth are removed. Undetectable najas-filth is the type of najas-filth that no longer has a color, taste, or smell. An example is urine that has dried on clothing without leaving any of its properties; in other...

The Actions of the Accountable-Grade 5

The Islamic Judgment Concerning the Actions of the Accountable   The Islamic Judgments are divided into seven types: The obligatory, recommended, prohibited, disliked, permissible, valid, and invalid. The obligatory judgment is that which the doer will receive the reward for, and the neglector of which deserves punishment. This, in turn, is divided into two subdivisions: the personal obligation and the communal obligation. The Personal Obligation is what is obligatory upon every accountable person, like the five prayers. The Communal Obligation is also an obligation. If some perform it, then others would be relieved from it. Examples are: the congregational prayer, memorizing the entire book of the Qur’an, and working in the beneficial handiwork that the...

The Prayer of the Late Follower-Grade 4

The Prayer of the Late Follower   The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from which he fears for them, urged us to do our prayers in congregation and showed its merit over praying individually. In a Hadith related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim, he said what means: “The reward of the prayer conducted in congregation is equivalent to 27 times the reward of praying alone.” The masbuq—also known as the late follower—is the person who joins the congregational prayer while the imam is still standing for the recitation, but at a time that is not enough for this person to finish reciting the Fatihah before the imam bows for ruku^. Also, he is one who catches up with the imam after the first standing position, such as in ruku^, sujud or tashahhud....

The Friday Prayer-Grade 4

The Friday Prayer   The Friday prayer is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, sane and unexcused Muslim males, if they are forty or more in number. They must also be living in buildings, and not in tents. This means that if the number of these Muslim men was under 40 or they live in tents, like the Bedouins, then performing the Friday prayer is not an obligation upon them. An Islamically acceptable excuse for missing the Friday prayer is if the person is very sick, and finds it very hard to get to the place where the Friday prayer is performed. The Friday prayer is two rak^ahs prayed instead of the Dhuhr prayer, but loudly. Its conditions are: –         For it to be prayed after the noon prayer time has set in and within its time;...

The Congregational Prayer-Grade 4

The Congregational Prayer   Every day, Muslims pray five prayers in congregation in the mosques. There are some rules of the congregational prayer that should be observed. The follower must stand behind the leader—their imam—in prayer, and must not say the first takbirah, except after the imam says it. The follower should make the intention to pray in congregation by saying in the heart, for example, “I now intend to pray the obligatory Noon prayer, in congregation.” If praying a soft-recitation prayer, the follower and the imam recite with a low voice in their prayer. In the loud recitation prayer (after the imam finishes reciting the Fatihah), the follower recites the Fatihah with a low voice, and then he listens to the remaining loud recitation of the...

The Soft and Loud-Recitation Prayers-Grade 4

The Soft-Recitation Prayer and the Loud-Recitation Prayer   The prayers with the loud recitation are the Dawn, Sunset and Nightfall prayers. In these prayers, the person praying alone says the Fatihah, the word “Amin” after it and the verses afterwards, in a loud voice, in the first two rak^ahs. The two prayers with the soft recitation are the Noon and Mid-Afternoon prayers. In these prayers, the person does not say anything in a loud voice. However, he has to hear his recitation. If a prayer was not done in its due time, the person has to make it up. If a person missed one of the loud-recitation prayers like the Dawn prayer, and prayed it at the time of a soft-recitation prayer, like the Noon prayer, he does it with a low voice, before praying the Noon...

The Invalidators of the Prayer-Grade 4

The Invalidators of the Prayer   There are matters that invalidate the prayer. These matters should be known, in order to avoid them. Some of these invalidators are. –         Speaking on purpose: this means if a person who is praying says other than the prayer’s statements, even two letters or one meaningful letter (unless one forgets and speaks a little), one’s prayer becomes invalid. However, mentioning Allah does not invalidate the prayer;   –         Eating or drinking also invalidates the prayer: this means if a person, while remembering that he is praying, eats or drinks on purpose, the prayer becomes invalid even if he ate something as tiny as a sesame seed;   –         Also among the invalidators is moving a lot: this...

The Recommended Deeds of Prayer-Grade 4

The Recommended Deeds of Prayer   The recommended deeds in the prayer are many. If a person leaves them out, his prayer is still valid. However, if a person does the recommended deeds in the prayer, he will have reward of doing them. That is why the Muslim should do them in the prayer. Some of the recommended deeds are: –         Placing the right hand over the left hand while placing both over the navel and under the chest; –         Reciting the opening du^a—supplication—in the first rak^ah before saying the Fatihah; –         Reciting from the Qur’an, even if it is a short surah or even one ayah after saying the Fatihah, in the first two rak^ah. This is for a person who is praying alone, or following the imam but does not hear the imam’s...

The Integrals of Prayer-Grade 4

The Integrals of Prayer   Each prayer has integrals and recommended matters. The prayer is not valid without its integrals. The recommended matters are rewardable matters within the prayer, which, if left out, does not invalidate the prayer valid, but lessens the reward. The integrals of prayer are seventeen: 1.To have intention in the heart of performing the prayer. One has to intend that the prayer is an obligatory prayer if it is so, and to specify the prayer that is performed for a particular reason or time;  2.To say “Allahu Akbar” loud enough to hear oneself;  3.To stand for the obligatory prayer when able;  4.To recite al-Fatihah including “Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Rahim,” doubling the letters properly and avoiding the error (lahn) whether or not it...

The Conditions for the Validity of Prayer-Grade 4

The Conditions for the Validity of Prayer   The conditions of the prayer are matters that must be met by the performer of the prayer before starting it. Some of these conditions are: –         Islam: this means that the prayer performed by a non-Muslim is not valid; –         Reaching the age of mental discrimination. This is the age at which the child can understand when spoken to and can answer when asked; –         Ablution is a must for the person who wants to pray; otherwise the prayer will not be valid; –         Having purity in the clothing, body, and place is important, because the place where the person is praying should be pure from any non-exempt najas-filth. –         One must also cover the unlawful nakedness. This...

The Obligatory Prayers-Grade 4

The Obligatory Prayers and Their Times   The prayers that are obligatory for every day and night are five. The first is the Noon Prayer (Dhuhr). It is four cycles and its time begins when the sun has declined westward from the middle of the sky. It remains until the length of the shadow of an object becomes equal to that of the object, in addition to the length of the shadow cast by the object when the sun was at its zenith. The second is the Mid-Afternoon Prayer (^Asr), which is also four cycles and its time begins after Dhuhr ends, and remains until sunset. The third is the Sunset Prayer (Maghrib), which is three cyles; its time begins after the sunset—in other words, when ^Asr ends—and remains until the redness disappears in the western horizon. The...

The Call for the Prayer-Grade 4

The Call for the Prayer and the Call to Start the Prayer   When the prayer time sets in, it is a rewardable deed for a Muslim to call for the prayer with a raised voice. This is called the Adhan. The person who calls Muslims for prayer stands, after performing ablution, in a high place facing the Qiblah and says the Adhan. In the call for the dawn prayer (Fajr), the caller adds after saying the second Hayya ^alal Falah, what means: “Prayer is better than sleep; prayer is better than sleep.” “As-Salatu khayrum-min anawm; As-Salatu khayrum min- anawm.” It is a rewardable deed for the Muslims hearing the call to the prayer to repeat after the caller the same words, except when he says “Hayya ^alal Salah” and “Hayya ^ala al-Falah”; instead, one would say: “La...

Invalidators of Wudu’-Grade 4

Invalidators of Wudu’ and its Disliked Matters   Among the matters that invalidate the wudu’ are: Materials exiting from the eliminatory outlets, such as urine, feces, gas, or stomach worms. Touching the private parts of a human i.e., the penis, vagina or anus with the inner part of the hand, without a barrier, also invalidates wudu’. If one sleeps in a position where the buttocks are not tightly placed on the floor or sitting place, one’s wudu’ would be invalidated. However, dozing such that one can still hear the words said around one, even if one does not understand, without seeing a dream, does not make the wudu’ invalid. If a person faints or becomes insane, even for a little time, his wudu’ is invalidated. Among the disliked matters when performing...

Ablution (Wudu’)-Grade 4

Ablution (Wudu’) Its Integrals and Recommended Matters   Allah, the exalted said in Surat-Ma’idah, Ayah 6, what means: “O you who believed, if you want to perform prayers, then wash your faces and your hands up to (and including) the elbows, wet wipe your heads and wash your feet with the ankles.” The integrals of ablution are six. First, to have the intention in the heart upon washing the face. One says in the heart: “I now intend to perform wudu’ (ablution)” or the like. Second, to wash the whole face, from the normal hairline to the bottom of the chin and from the ear to the ear. Third, to wash the hands from the tips of the fingers then up to and including the elbows. Fourth, to wet-wipe part of the head. Fifth, to wash the feet, with the ankles...

Istinja’-Grade 4

Istinja’ (Cleaning Oneself after Urination and Defecation)   It is an obligation to make istinja’ from the wet najas-filth after it has passed from any of the eliminatory outlets. This means if urine or the like passes out of a person, the person must clean himself from the najas-filth before praying, otherwise the prayer will not be valid. However, one does not have to make istinja’ after passing gas. Istinja’ can be done either by using water or by using a material that is pure, solid, dry, uprooting and unrespected. Such materials are like rocks, tissues or papers that do not have any Islamic material on them. Performing istinja’ using water is done by pouring the purifying water over the contaminated place until it becomes pure. As for performing...

Conditions of Purification-Grade 4

Conditions of Purification   Allah said in Surat Al-Baqarah, Ayah 222, which means: “Surely Allah loves those who repent of their sins and perform the purification as they should.” In a Hadith related by Muslim, the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Purification is a very important matter in Islam.” Purification means lifting off the states of major and minor ritual impurity and removing najas-filth. The conditions for one’s purification to be valid are five. First, the person purifying themselves has to be Muslim. The purification act done by a non-Muslim is not valid. Second, the person must be at the age of mental discrimination. This means for one to be in a stage where they can at least understand when spoken to and can...

Purification from Najas-Filth-Grade 4

Purification from Najas-Filth   Najas-filth is of two types: detectable (^Ayniyya) and undetectable (Hukmiyyah) Detectable najas-filth is the najas-filth whose entity, color, taste or smell is detectable, such as a drop of blood on clothing. This najas-filthy area can be purified by pouring on it water, which is pure and purifying, until the entities and properties of the najas-filth are removed. Undetectable najas-filth is the type of najas-filth that no longer has a color, taste, or smell, such as urine that has dried on clothing without leaving any of its properties. In other words, this dry urine no longer has a smell color or taste. The place that is contaminated with najas-filth can be purified by pouring purifying water on it. If the najas-filth from...

Types of Water-Grade 4

Types of Water   Water is divided into three types. They are: –         Pure and purifying water; –         Pure but not purifying water; and –         Najas-filthy water Regarding pure and purifying water, it is the absolute water; that is, pure in itself and purifying when it is used in purificatory bathing, wudu’, and ridding of najas-filth. Examples of such water are rain, ocean, river, well and spring waters. On the other, pure but not purifying water is used water. It consists of two types: the water that has been used for lifting off a major impurity or a minor one, and water that has been used for the ridding of najas-filth, but none of whose properties—color, taste, smell, etc.—have changed. This water is still pure in itself, but...