^Aliyy ibn Abi Talib

^Aliyy ibn Abi Talib          ^Aliyy ibn Abi Talib is Abul-Hasan ^Aliyy, the son of Abu Talib, the son of ^Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Hashim, the son of ^Abdu Manaf, the cousin of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. His mother was Fatimah, the daughter of Asad, the son of Hashim. He was born 10 years before the Revelation of the Prophet, and was raised in the house under the care of the Prophet. He was the first to embrace Islam after Khadijah, when he was young. The name has known by was Haydrah, likening him to a lion. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, gave him the title of Abu Turab, and it was his favorite title. When the Prophet, ^alayhis-salam, immigrated from Makkah to Madinah, he ordered ^Aliyy to sleep in his bed. He told him to...

The Murder of ^Uthman ibn ^Affan

The Murder of ^Uthman ibn ^Affan          The evil leaders of the sedition were feigning goodness and justice, while in their hearts, they hid the hatred they felt. Their leader was ^Abdullah ibn Saba’, who was known as Ibnus-Sawda’. He was among the Jews of Iraq, a hypocrite who pretended to be Muslim, in order to make fitnah among the Muslims and break up the Islamic nation. When the people of Basrah exposed him, they exiled him; he then went to Kufah and ash-Sham, and experienced similar treatment. Ibnus-Sawda’ went to Egypt, where he resided. His group there became larger in number. He used to excessively slander ^Uthman, hoping to break up the unity of the Muslims. The slandering and rumors also became widespread in al-Madinah. The leaders of fitnah wrote...

^Uthman ibn ^Affan

^Uthman ibn ^Affan          He is Abu ^Amr ^Uthman ibn ^Affan, the son of ^Abdul-^As. His mother is Arwa, the daughter of Kurayz. His lineage meets the honorable lineage of the Prophet at ^Abdu Manaf. ^Uthman ibn ^Affan is given the title of Dhun-Nurayn, because he married two of the Prophet’s daughters: first Ruqayyah, and then Umm Kulthum. ^Uthman was of medium height. His face was beautiful, white with hints of redness and still had marks of chicken pox on it. He had a full, heavy beard, and a wide area between his shoulders. His arms were long and covered with hair. He was bald, and tightened his teeth with gold. The ring he wore was the ring of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, just as Abu Bakr and ^Umar, may Allah raise their ranks, had done. When...

The Killing of ^Umar ibn al-Khattab

The Killing of ^Umar ibn al-Khattab          In 14 AH, the Amir of the Believers, ^Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah raise his rank, ordered the building of Kufah and Basrah. They built Kufah, first out of bamboo, then they asked the permission to build it using clay blocks, which ^Umar granted them. In 17 AH, he went to Makkah for ^Umrah, and stayed there for 20 days. During this period, he extended the boundaries of Masjidul-Haram. Also, in that year, ^Umar ibn al-Khattab married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of ^Aliyy ibn Abi Talib from Fatimah az-Zahra’. In 18 AH, there was a strong drought; it was called the year of ar-Ramadah. ^Umar, may Allah raise his rank, prayed the istisqa’ prayer, asking Allah for rain. He also delivered a speech, took al-^Abbas, the son of...

Opening the Land of Persia

Opening the Land of Persia          After the battle of Qadisiyyah, the Amir of the Believers ordered the Muslims to head toward al-Mada’in, the capital of the Kisra dynasty. They left and reached Babil—Babylon—where the Persians retreated after their defeat at Qadisiyyah. Severe fighting took place there, and the Persians were defeated again. The Persians split into two parts. Al-Hurmuzan entered al-Ahwaz in Iraq, and al-Fayrazan entered Nahawand in Persia, where the treasures of Kisra were stored. The Muslims continued until they reached Shahrashir, which was close to al-Mada’in. When they saw the Iwan, the palace of Kisra, they said, “Allahu Akbar, this is the White one (because its stones were white); this is what Allah and His Prophet have promised us.” They...

The Battle of Qadisiyyah

The Battle of Qadisiyyah          After Khalid ibn al-Walid left Iraq to ash-Sham, al-Muthanna ibn Harithah led the army and stayed behind. He stayed at al-Hirah and managed the affairs there. Kisra, the king of Persia, sent 13 armies to al-Hirah and his leader Hurmuz. The fought the Muslims heavily, but were defeated. Hurmuz was killed by al-Muthanna. ^Umar ibn al-Khattab encouraged the people to go to Iraq to support al-Muthanna. Abu ^Ubayd ibn Mas^ud stepped forward, and ^Umar sent him with an army, which was his first army to be sent to Iraq. Abu ^Ubayd joined his forces with al-Muthanna in the presence of a huge gathering of the Persians under Rustum. They clashed at al-Jisr and 4,000 Muslims were killed. 3,000 Muslims remained alive. They sent to ^Umar, may...

^Umar ibn Al-Khattab

^Umar ibn Al-Khattab          ^Umar ibn al-Khattab is Abu Hafs ^Umar ibnul-Khattab ibn Nufayl. His lineage meets the honored lineage of the Prophet at Ka^b ibn Lu’ayy. His mother is Hathmah Bint Hashim. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, called him al-Faruq, because he distinguishes between the truth and falsehood. He was born, may Allah raise his rank, 13 years after the Year of the Elephant. He embraced Islam in the sixth year after the Revelation. ^Umar ibn al-Khattab was tall, bald, white in color with extreme redness. He had thick chin hair, light hair on the sides of his face, a full mustache, with intense redness in the whites of his eyes. He was extremely modest, unattached to this life, full with fear of Allah and very distant from extravagancy....

The Battle of Yarmuk

The Battle of Yarmuk          The armies of Abu ^Ubaydah gathered in Yarmuk, which is a place in Palestine. They were 21,000 in number. Heraclius then sent his armies and they were more than 200,000. The Muslims wrote to Abu Bakr, telling him about the situation, asking him to send more troops. Abu Bakr, in turn, wrote to Khalid ibnul-Walid and instructed him to deputize Al-Muthanna ibn Harithah over Iraq and lead his army to ash-Sham. He also appointed him the Amir of the armies in ash-Sham instead of Abu ^Ubaydah and rushed him to be there. Khalid mobilized his forces and reached Yarmuk. The combat started and the battle was fierce. It went on until Allah granted Muslims victory. Heraclius heard about the defeat of the Roman army when he was in Hims. He...

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq          Abu Bakr as-Siddiq is ^Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafah ^Uthman ibn ^Amir. His lineage meets the lineage of the Prophet at Murrah ibn Ka^b. His mother is the cousin of his father; in other words, she is the daughter of Abu Bakr’s grandfather’s brother. Abu Bakr was born three years after the Year of the Elephant. He was one of the heads of Quraysh and its scholars, beloved to them. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq was white in color, thin in body, with light hair on the sides of his face and a prominent forehead. He was the most generous Companion and the first man to embrace Islam, at the age of 37 years. When the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, died, Abu Bakr was given the allegiance as the Khalifah—the Caliph—in the eleventh Hijriyy year at the...

The Illness of the Prophet and His Death

The Illness of the Prophet and His Death          After the end of the Battle of Khaybar, a Jewish woman poisoned the Prophet. The Prophet’s sickness became more pressing on him during the eleventh Hijriyy year. Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, asked the permission of his wives to be cared for at the house of ^A’ishah. When he was no longer able to lead the Muslims in prayer, he said, “Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.” The Prophet then went out, leaning on ^Aliyy and al-Fadl until he sat at the lower stairs of the mimbar. He thanked Allah, praised Him and addressed the Companions with a long speech, full of advice. On Sunday, the pain of the Prophet became strong. On Monday, the 12th of Rabi^ul-Awwal, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa...

The Charge on Tabuk

The Charge on Tabuk          The charge on Tabuk took place in the month of Rajab, in the ninth year after the Immigration, and it was the last campaign the Prophet conducted. It took place because the Prophet learned that Heraclius and the Romans gathered several armies to invade the Prophet in his land. This happened during a time of drought and intense heat, and the people were large in number. In spite of that, the Prophet ordered to prepare for the fight. He urged the rich to equip the insolvent. ^Uthman ibn ^Affan, may Allah raise his rank, spent a large sum of money which was unsurpassed by others. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah raise his rank, donate all this wealth. Al-^Abbas and Tahlah also brought a great deal of money. The women gave away all what they...

The Battle of Hunayn, Part II

The Battle of Hunayn, Part II          The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was on his white mule, Duldul, which was led by Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith and al-^Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. The scholar said, “The riding of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, on the mule during war, when the people are in extreme need of him, is the utmost in courage and steadfastness. “He will be then the reference that the Muslims go back to in their hearts and will find tranquility by his presence and place. “The Prophet did that on purpose, or else the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, had few well-known horses.” The Messenger of Allah said repeatedly to the Muslims: “O people, I am the Messenger of Allah, I am Muhammad, the son of ^Abdullah.” He ordered...

The Battle of Hunayn, Part I

The Battle of Hunayn, Part I          The Battle of Hunayn was in Shawwal, in the eighth year of Hijrah. Allah gave victory to His Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and the believers who were with him over the blasphemers. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, stayed in Makkah for half a month in the year when he opened it. Hawazin and Thaqif came to Hunayn, which is a valley between Makkah and Ta’if. They intended to fight the Prophet, under the leadership of Malik ibn ^Awf an-Nasriyy. When the Prophet heard about their intentions, he sent to them ^Abdullah ibn Abi Hadrad al-Aslamiyy, ordering him to stay among them and then come back to the Prophet with the news about them. He came back and told the Prophet about what he had seen among them. The...

The Opening of Makkah

The Opening of Makkah     About two months after the Battle of Mu’tah, Quraysh violated one of the conditions of the Hudaybiyah Treaty. They assisted their ally, the tribe of Bakr against Khuza^ah, the ally of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Quraysh sent Abu Sufyan ibn Harb to Madinah to renew the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, but they did not achieve their goals. The Prophet prepared for Jihad. He called the Arabs around him to join. He marched with an army that was close to 10,000 mujahids. This event occurred in Ramadan, in the eighth year after the Immigration. When the news reached Quraysh, Abu Sufyan, Hakim ibn Huzam, and Budayl ibn Warqa’ went out seeking the news about the Messenger of Allah. The Muslims captured them and took them to the...

The Battle of Mu’tah, Part II

The Battle of Mu’tah, Part II          The Muslims met the Romans and their parties, and fought. Zayd ibn Harithah fought while holding the banner of the Prophet until he was killed. Then Ja^far ibn Abi Talib took the banner and fought carrying it until he, too, was killed. He was holding the banner with his right hand, and when it was cut off, he held it with his left. When they cut that hand off, he held it between his shoulders until he was killed, may Allah have mercy on him, at the age of 33 years. After Ja^far was killed, ^Abdullah ibn Rawahah took the banner while he was riding on a horse. He was hesitant about fighting. Then he dismounted his horse and fought until he was killed as well. Thabit ibn Aqram then took the banner and said, “Oh Muslims, decide...

The Battle of Mu’tah, Part I

The Battle of Mu’tah, Part I          During the eighth year after Hijrah, the Battle of Mu’tah occurred. When the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, returned from Khaybar to Madinah, he stayed there for the two months of Rabi^ul-Awwal and Rabi^ul-Akhir. Then in Jumadal-‘Ula, he sent people to Mu’tah in ash-Sham. The reason for this was that the Prophet had sent Al-Harith, the son of ^Umayr al-Azdiyy, with his letter to ash-Sham to the Roman King. Shurahbil ibn ^Amr al-Ghassaniyy intercepted him, tied him up, and cut off his head. When the news of this incident reached the Prophet, he was disturbed by it. He sent an army to Mu’tah in Jumadal-‘Ula, during the eighth year after Hijrah. He put Zayd ibn Harithah as their leader. He said, “If Zayd is killed, then...

The Battle of Khaybar

The Battle of Khaybar          This battle occurred during the seventh year after Hijrah. During the month of Muharram, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, set out to this battle with 1,600 men. He travelled until he reached Khaybar at night. Khaybar is a city north of Madinah in the direction of ash-Sham. The inhabitants of this city were from the Jewish tribe, Banun-Nadir. They were among the ones who rallied greatly for the Battle of the Trench to fight the Prophet and the Muslims. The Prophet surrounded Khaybar for six days. On the seventh night, which was the night of Victory, the Prophet said, “Tomorrow, I will give the banner to a man who is beloved to Allah and His Prophet and who will open Khaybar.” The next morning, he gave the banner to ^Aliyy...

The Treaty of Hudaybiyah

The Treaty of Hudaybiyah          In Dhul-Qa^dah of the sixth Hijriyy year, the Prophet left Madinah with about 1,500 Muslims. They headed toward Makkah to perform ^Umrah. However, the blasphemers refused to allow them entrance to Makkah. Finally, the Prophet agreed to have a treaty with the blasphemers at Hudaybiyah. ^Aliyy ibn Abi Talib was present when the Prophet agreed to the treaty with the blasphemers on the day of Hudaybiyah. ^Aliyy wrote: “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, ratifies.” The blasphemers said: “Do not write ‘The Messenger of Allah,’ because if we had thought that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you.” The Prophet said to ^Aliyy, “Erase it.” ^Aliyy said, “I am not the one who erases it,” because he did not...

The Battle of Ahzab (The Trench)

The Battle of Ahzab (The Trench)          In the fifth year after Hijrah, the battle of the Trench—or Ahzab—took place. A number of Jews from the leaders of Banun-Nadir, who the Prophet expelled out of Madinah, left their area seeking Makkah. They called upon the blasphemers from Quraysh to fight the Prophet of Allah. As a result, they agreed amongst themselves to fight him. The Jews left and went to the blasphemous Arab tribes. They invited them to fight the Messenger and the Muslims in Madinah. They promised each other to fight the Prophet in Madinah on a particular day and at a particular place. This news reached the Prophet of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. He gathered his Companions and told them about the news of the enemy. He consulted with them....

The Battle of Uhud

The Battle of Uhud          The Battle of Uhud happened in the third year after Hijrah. When Quraysh was hit in Badr, they went back to Makkah, defeated. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb also went away with his camels. Some of the men of Quraysh, whose parents and brothers were killed or wounded in Badr, spoke to Abu Sufyan and those that traded through the caravan. They agreed to fight the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. They camped in the valley before Mount Uhud. This made the Muslims cheer for the coming battle with the enemy. They said, “Allah brought us what we were looking for.” The Prophet saw a dream on Friday night. He woke up and told a group of his Companions about it. He interpreted it that some of his Companions, and one of his family members, would be...

The Battle of Banu Qaynaqa^

The Battle of Banu Qaynaqa^          The Battle of Banu Qaynaqa^ occurred during the second year of Hijrah (2 AH). It was said about it that Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, had agreed with the Jews of Madinah that they would not assist anyone against him, and if an enemy attacked the Prophet in Madinah, they would support him. When the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, killed the blasphemers of Quraysh at Badr, the Jews showed enmity and jealousy, and breached the treaty. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, gathered them in the marketplace of Qaynaqa^ and said: “Oh Jews, beware of the torture of Allah and do not let the torture that befell Quraysh fall on you. Embrace Islam, because you know that I am a Prophet sent with a message; you...

The Beginning of the Battles The Major Battle of Badr

The Beginning of the Battles The Major Battle of Badr Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was calling the people to Islam by talking to them. He had not yet been ordered to go to battle. After his immigration, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was permitted to fight the blasphemers, The Prophet himself, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, fought 27 battles—also known as ghazwahs—and other times he would send the Muslims to engage the enemy without himself going. These were called sariyyahs. During the second year after the immigration, the Battles of al-Abwa’, Buwat, ^Ushayrah, and the major battle of Badr all took place. Badr occurred on Friday, the 17th of Ramadan. It was said about the Battle of Badr that a group of 30 men were returning from...

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part III

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part III Al-Mi^raj (The Ascension)            The Ascension of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is confirmed by the authentic Hadiths. However, there is no explicit mention for al-Mi^raj in the Qur’an. Nevertheles, there are verses in the Qur’an that are very close to being explicit. Allah, ta^ala, said in Suratun-Najm, Ayahs 13-15, what means: “The Prophet, sallallahu ^alahi wa sallam, saw Angel Jibril another time at the tree of Sidratul-Muntaha, which extends to Paradise.” The Prophet of Allah said about his Night Journey and Ascension: “We ascended to the sky and Jibril asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ “He said, ‘Jibril.’ “He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ “He said, ‘Muhammad.’ “He...

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part II

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part II Al-Isra’ (The Night Journey)          Two years before the immigration, when Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was 51 years old, he went from Makkah, from the house of Umm Hani’, his paternal cousin, on a night journey. The journey was by both body and soul. This is confirmed in the Qur’an and Hadith. So, the one who denies al-Isra’ is denying the Qur’an and has left Islam. Angel Jibril brought al-Buraq to Prophet Muhammad in al-Masjid al-Haram. Al-Buraq is an animal from Paradise. It places its hooves wherever its sight falls. The Prophet rode behind Jibril on al-Buraq. They passed by al-Madinah, before the Prophet would migrate to it. The Prophet descended and prayed. He then passed by Madyan, the city...

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part I

A Few Miracles of Prophet Muhammad, Part I          Prophet Muhammad’s miracles are many. Imam ash-Shafi^iyy said: “For every miracle Allah gave to the other prophets, He gave Prophet Muhammad a similar or greater miracle.” Among these miracles is the Qur’an. The Qur’an is Prophet Muhammad’s greatest miracle. It proves his truthfulness. If all humans and jinn were to try to come up with something like the Qur’an, they would not be able to do so. Also, the splitting of the moon. The blasphemers asked the Prophet to show them a miracle. So, he pointed to the moon and it split into two halves; both people who were inside and outside of Makkah saw this split. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, was also once given a container of water which did not cover all...