The story of ^Uzayr

^Uzayr, whose story was briefly mentioned in the Qur’an, was a pious Muslim from the descendants of Prophet Israel, also known as Ya^qub. This story shows God’s great Might. The descendants of Prophet Israel, the Israelites, had split into several groups. Some stayed as they were: believing Muslims who adhered strongly to the rules of the religion. The others blasphemed and perverted the religion. This caused great tribulation unto the Muslim nation of the time, which often led to the killing of some honored prophets at the hands of some of the Jews. After their corruption had spread and they had unjustly ruled, and ruthlessly killed two honorable prophets, our masters Zakariya and his son Yahya, Allah inflicted upon them a blasphemous ruler named Bukhtanassar....

Respecting the Muslim

Allah created the human being in the best of forms. He made him benefit from what is in the sky and Earth. He endowed upon him a mind, tongue, lips, eyes and ears so that one uses these organs in the accepted way to please Allah, i.e., to obey him and perform obedience to Him. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, Ayah 3 of Suratut-Taghabun, what means: “Allah created you having a good shape. To Him is the return.” Allah gave the Muslim a merit over others, because he has fulfilled the greatest obligation, which is believing in Allah and stating that Allah is clear of having partners. The Muslim has several rights. The Religion has urged us to respect the Muslim and not to demean him. The Religion also made hurting a Muslim a sin for which one deserves to be...

Immense Hurting of the Parents (^Uquq)

Hurting one’s parents immensely is among the major sins. Allah threatened the one who does it with severe torture in Hellfire. This means to harm either or both parents immensely—in other words, causing them a lot of pain. Hurting one’s parents is unlawful whether it is severe or light. Among the examples of harming one’s parents is to curse, or insult them both or either one. Among what is also considered unlawful is if the son obeys his mother in doing injustice to his father, or vice versa. It does not benefit him if he obeyed his mother and yet harmed his father, because there should be no obedience to a human by disobeying Allah, the Creator. In summary, helping either parent in doing injustice to the other is sinful. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an what...

The Forbidden Games and Depictions

Among the sins of the hand is playing the many unlawful games. Among them are dice, cards, and the like. These games are prohibited because they rely on guessing, not on thinking and calculating. These prohibited games result in fights among people and other evil things. Regarding throwing dice, also called nardashir, as it was made for the first Persian king, it was related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The one who plays with dice is similar to the one who submerges his hand in the flesh and blood of a pig.” In addition, playing cards is forbidden, just like playing with dice, because every game that is based on guessing and chance, but not on calculation and thinking, is haram. This can also be said...

The Merit of Knowledge and Abiding By It

In a Hadith related by al-Bayhaqiyy, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Seeking the [obligatory] religious knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim.” Learning the Religious knowledge is among the best things that one may spend one’s time doing. The safe path that protects a person and his family from Hellfire is by learning the Islamic knowledge; in other words, learning what Allah made obligatory upon us and learning what Allah ordered us to avoid. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, Ayah 11 of Suratul-Mujadalah, what means: “Allah raises to higher ranks the believers and those of (Islamic) knowledge.” It was also related by al-Bukhariyy that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The one for whom Allah willed...

Lying

Lying is among the sins of the tongue. It is to utter false information while knowing that what one is saying is not the truth. It is sinful whether done seriously or jokingly. Al-Bayhaqiyy related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Lying is not good, whether in seriousness or joking.” Ibn Majah related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, also said: what means: “Do not ever lie, because lying leads to very abhorrent sins, and those in turn lead to Hellfire. One keeps on lying and seeks to do that until one is recorded as a liar in some books of Allah.” There are many things that are among the sins of the tongue and fall under the category of lying. They include: swearing by Allah to a lie, false testimony, and falsely...

Severing the Obligatory Ties of Kinship

Severing the ties of kinship is among the sins of the body, and also a major sin. This is done by breaking the hearts of the relatives by refusing to be good-hearted financially if they need money, or by leaving out visiting them without an excuse. If one usually helps one’s relatives, then one lost the money, or one found a more urgent need for it, then one would not be sinful for not offering it to one’s relatives. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, in Ayahs 22-23 of Surat Muhammad, what means: “Dispraise those who blaspheme and cut off the ties of kinship.” Also, al-Bukhariyy related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The one who severs the ties with the relatives will not be among the first to enter Paradise. Rather, this person...

Gossip, Fabrication and Tale-Bearing

Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, Ayah 8 of Surat Qaf, what means: “Whatever one says, be it good or evil, two angels Raqib and ^Atid write it.” The wise person should be keen to protect his tongue from everything that is evil. Among what is evil is: gossip, fabrication, and tale-bearing. These three matters are among the sins of the tongue and are bad habits. At-Tabaraniyy confirmed that one of the Companions addressed his tongue by saying what means: “O tongue, say what is good and you will gain, and keep silent about what is bad before you regret it. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: ‘Most of the human’s sins are from his tongue.’” Gossip means to mention a matter related to a Muslim in his absence in a way that he hates. If a Muslim person was short,...

Arrogance, Enmity and Envy

Arrogance and having enmity for, and envy of, Muslims are all sins of the heart. These are bad attributes, of which many people are unaware, because they do not know what they are or how to avoid them. Arrogance is to reject the truth and to look down on people. In a Hadith related by Muslim, the Prophet, may God raise his rank, said what means: “Arrogance is rejecting the truth and looking down on others.” What is understood from this hadith is that arrogance is rejecting what one knows is right, because the person saying it is young, poor, a student, or weak. Looking down on people is like being arrogant with a poor person, because he is poor. Thus, the arrogant refuses to speak with him or talks to him in a haughty way. Enmity, on the other hand, is to hate a...

Loving God and His Messenger

Love and hate are among the actions of the heart. It is obligatory upon the pubescent person to use these two emotions in accordance with the rules of the Religion. One must love Allah and what is in accordance with the rules of Islam. Also, one must hate the devil and what he whispers of sinful matters. The pubescent person is obligated to love Allah, His Qur’an, and His Prophet. This is done by following the orders of Islam and avoiding its unlawful matters. Allah, ta^ala said in Ayah 31 of Suratu Al ^Imran what means: “Say (O Muhammad): If you love Allah, then follow me, and Allah will love you.” This is an essential part of believing in Allah, what He revealed, and believing in the Prophet and what he brought. The doubt in Allah, on the other hand, His...

Subjugating Oneself to Allah

Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, Ayah 153 of Suratul-Baqarah, what means: “Strengthen yourselves by patience and prayer, and know that God supports the patient people.” Patience is among the obligations of the heart. It is of three kinds: Patience in performing what Allah made obligatory; Patience in avoiding what Allah made unlawful; Patience with hardships and calamities Patience in performing the obligations is forcing oneself to perform the obligations like praying on time, fasting the month of Ramadan, attending the circles of knowledge to learn the Islamic obligatory knowledge, and other obligations, even if one feels lazy to do them. Patience in avoiding what Allah made unlawful is restraining oneself from committing the sins. It takes a lot of effort to...

Sincerity in Obedience

Sincerity in Obedience, Insincerity in Performing the Good Deeds and Priding Oneself in Obeying God Sincerity in obeying Allah is among the obligations of the heart. It is also one of the good characteristics. Sincerity in obeying Allah is doing the good deeds for the sake of Allah only. It is not doing them seeking the praise and respect of people. Allah made sincerity a condition for the acceptance of the good deeds. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an, Ayah 110 of Suratul-Kahf, what means: “Let the one who believes in the Day of Judgment do good deeds without seeking the praise of the people by doing so.” The sincere person is the one who performs the good deeds—be it praying, fasting, Hajj, Zakah, or reciting Qur’an—seeking the reward from Allah, and not for...

Loving One Another for the Sake of Allah

Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank, said which means: “Allah, the Exalted, said, ‘The ones who love each other for my sake will have illuminated platforms in the Hereafter.’” Another authentic Hadith relates that which means: “Allah will protect seven kinds of people from the strong heat of the sun on the Day of Judgment by placing them under the shade of the grand ^Arsh.” One of the seven is “two people who love one another for the sake of Allah.” To love one another for the sake of Allah is for the Muslim to love for his brother Muslim the goodness that he loves himself. This means he does not cheat him by deeds or words. If he finds his brother Muslim in a good state, he is happy for him. However, if he finds him doing bad things, he does not encourage...

Keeping Ties with the Kin

In asking Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank, a question, a Companion of the Prophet said, “O Messenger of Allah, guide me to a deed that will grant me paradise if I do it.” The Prophet replied what means: “Feed the poor, keep ties with your kin, and pray at night while people are asleep; (by this) you shall enter Paradise in peace.” This Hadith was related by Ibn Hibban. This Hadith also tells us that if the Muslim does these deeds, he shall enter Paradise without being punished. One of these deeds is to keep ties with his kin. A kin is every relative from the father’s side or mother’s side of the family. Al-Bukariyy related that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said what means: “The person who breaks ties with his or her kin will not be among the first...

Immense Harming of the Parents

In a Hadith related by al-Bukhariyy, the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, said what means: “The person who commits ^uquq against his parents will not be among the first to enter Paradise.” ^Uquq against one’s parents means to hurt the parents immensely in any way, causing them a lot of pain. For example, it is ^uquq to hit them or swear at them or curse them. This is one of the enormous sins. Among the ^uquq against one’s parents is for one to help the father wrong the mother, or to help the mother wrong the father. This is also forbidden and is among the greatest sins. One’s ^uquq against the mother is a worse sin than one’s ^uquq against the father. On the other hand, kind treatment of the mother is more rewarding than kind treatment of the father. Kind...

Stealing and Trustworthiness

Allah, the Exalted, said in Suratul Ma’idah, Ayah 38, what means: “Cut the hands of the male and female thieves as a punishment from Allah for what they did.” Stealing is to take another person’s belongings or money stealthily, and without the owner’s approval. This is a sin and a harmful illness in the society. When a person has weak faith, and sees someone else’s belongings or money, he may be tempted to take part of it. For example, this person may say to himself, “I will take only a small amount of it; the owner is rich and he will not miss the small amount I have taken.” Also, he may say to himself, “If the money box is open in front of me, then I will take from it what I want and no one will know about it.” He may also say, “My friends wear new clothes; why...

Honesty and Lying

Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim related that the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, said what means: “Truthfulness leads to piety and piety leads to Paradise. The Muslim who continues to be truthful will then be recorded in the book of Allah as a truthful person. Lying leads to bad deeds and bad deeds lead to hellfire. The Muslim who continues to lie will be recorded in the book of Allah as a liar.” In this honorable saying, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, urged us to speak the truth and warned us against lying. Lying is saying what is different from the truth. This act is forbidden, whether it is done in a serious or in a joking manner. If a Muslim knowingly says what is different from the truth, then he has fallen into the sin of lying. An example of a lie...

Gossip and Fabrication

In a Hadith related by Muslim, the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, asked the Companions, “Do you know what gossip is?” The Companions said, “Allah and His Messenger knows best.” The Prophet said, “It is you mentioning about your Muslim brother whatever he does not like.” The Companions asked, “Is it still gossip even if what I mention about my brother is true?” The Prophet answered, “If you mention about him what is true of him, then you did gossip; but if you mention about him what is not true of him, then you have done fabrication.” In this Hadith, the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, defined two kinds of sins of the tongue: gossip and fabrication. So, gossip is to talk about your Muslim brother behind his back, about things that are true, but he does not...

Insincerity

Ahmad ibn Hanbal related that the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank, said what means: “Certainly, I fear most for you to commit the smaller shirk.” The Companions asked, “What is the smaller shirk?” The Messenger of Allah answered, “Insincerity.” Insincerity is doing the good deed to gain praise from the people. This is the opposite of sincerity in obeying Allah. Sincerity is performing acts of worship and obeying Allah to gain His reward alone. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim related that the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank said, what means: “The good deeds are accepted when done with proper intentions.” So, if the pubescent Muslim does the prayers so that the people will say good things about him, such as “This person prays a lot” or “This person is a very good...

Humbling Oneself to Muslims

Imam Ahmad related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The one who has in his heart arrogance that weighs as much as an atom will not be admitted to Paradise with the first batch].” Islam dispraises arrogance and arrogant people. The arrogant is the one who disdains others and believes oneself superior to them. He is also the one who rejects the truth said by someone, knowing that this person is saying the truth. The arrogant may do that because the one saying the truth is young, poor, weak, or the like. Imam Muslim related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Arrogance is rejecting the truth said by one and looking down on people.” In other words, one does not accept the truth and scorns the people....

Good Relations with Relatives

Islam has urged us to visit our relatives, whether they are the relative of the father or the mother. Those are called arham—the kin. Maintaining good relations with relatives refers to visiting, helping, and being generous to one’s relatives. The person who severs these relations deserves the torture of Allah. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The one who severs the obligatory ties of kinship does not deserve admittance to Paradise without torture.” This was related by al-Bukhariyy. This hadith means that the one who severs the obligatory ties of kinship will not be admitted to Paradise with the first batch of Muslims. That is so, if he dies as a Muslim. This person deserves to be admitted into Paradise after he takes his share of...

Showing Kindness to Your Parents

Allah said in the Qur’an, in Ayahs 23-24 of Suratul-Isra’, what means: “Allah firmly ordered: Do not worship anyone other than Him. Be greatly benevolent to your parents whether one or both of them attain old age while living with or supported by you. Do not speak harshly to them or treat them with an annoyed attitude. Instead, speak to them with humble kindness and mercy. Make supplication to Allah and say: ‘O Allah bestow upon them Your Mercy, they have shown me mercy when they did bring me up when I was small.’” One right of the Muslim parents on their Muslim children is for the children to treat them with goodness, to support them financially if they need their support (and they are able), be generous to them and not to be rough in treating them. The children...

Sincerity and Insincerity

Allah said in the Qur’an, in Ayah 110 of Suratul-Kahf, what means: “Let those who believe in the Day of Judgment do the obedience which Allah accepts, and refrain from falling into insincerity when doing the worship.” Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Good deeds are rewardable only when they are done with good intentions.” In other words, good deeds have to have a correct and sincere intention. One’s intention has to be seeking the reward of Allah only so that the deed may be accepted by Allah. Insincerity, also known as ar-Riya’, is haram. It is to perform the good deeds seeking praise of the people. For example, when a Muslim prays so that people say about him, “so and so prays,” then this Muslim...

Lying

Ibn Majah related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Beware of lying, because lying leads one to commit enormous sins, and committing enormous sins leads to Hellfire.” Lying is to say on purpose what is different from the truth. Lying is haram whether or not one is joking. In a Hadith related by al-Bayhaqiyy, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Lying is not virtuous seriously or jokingly.” It is incumbent upon the Muslim to refrain from this sin so that one is not devastated. The Muslim speaks the truth because speaking the truth is a trait of the righteous Muslims. Sometimes lying may inflict harm on the Muslims. In this case, it is an enormous sin. Some people name a lie, like an April Fool’s joke, as a...

The Tongue

At-Tabaraniyy related that one of the companions addressed his tongue and said: “O tongue, say good and you will win. Be silent of uttering evil and you will be safe before you regret it. I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, saying: ‘Most of the sins of the offspring of Adam are from their tongues.’” The tongue is one of the blessings with which Allah endowed the humanity. In spite of its small size, the tongue can cause one’s admittance into Hellfire. We should use the tongue in the ways of goodness, like mentioning the name of Allah, ta^ala, and reciting the Qur’an. One should use it in saying the truth, ordering what is good, forbidding what is evil, and in carrying on all what brings benefit and goodness to the human beings. We have...

Some of the Manners of the Prophet

In describing His Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, Allah, ta^ala said, in Ayah 4 of Suratul-Qalam, what means: “Verily, your manners are distinguished and great.” Al-Bukhariyy related that when Lady ^A’ishah, may Allah raise her rank, was asked about the Prophet’s manners, she said what means: “His manners were all what the Qur’an ordered to do.” Allah gave our Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, the beautiful and great manners which made him notable among his people, who recognized him as the Truthful and Trustworthy long before he received the Revelation. He was described with clemency, patience and courage. Al-Bayhaqiyy related that Ibn ^Umar, may Allah raise his rank, said: “I have never seen someone more courageous, more generous, or more submitting...

Harming the Parents

Allah, ta^ala, said in Suratul-Isra’, Ayah 23, what means, “Do not say ‘uff’ to them (your parents) and do not scold them. Say to them a kind word.” The Muslim should avoid all what hurts his parents. The one who mistreats his parents and greatly hurts them is ^aq to his parents. The one who is ^aq to his parents is not considered by Allah to be among the righteous and pious.

Obeying the Parents

Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat Luqman, Ayah 14, what means, “We have ordered the human being to treat his parents kindly. His mother carried him in her womb, one hardship after another, and is weaned when he is two years old. Be thankful to Allah and to your parents; to Allah you shall return.” Allah ordered the Muslim to obey his parents, as long as they do not ask him to sin, and promised the one who obeys them with reward in the Hereafter. The Muslim should treat his parents kindly and not raise his voice at them.

Good Manners

The Religion of Islam encourages good manners. The perfect Muslim does not harm other Muslims. The perfect Muslim does good things for other Muslims. The perfect Muslim smiles when he greets another Muslim. He treats well the one who mistreated him. The perfect Muslim is patient and does not get angry over a silly matter. The Prophet, salallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means, “The good word is a charity.” This was related by Imam al-Bukhariyy.

Truthfulness

Truthfulness is one of the attributes of the righteous Muslim. The righteous Muslim does not lie. Truthfulness is good. Allah loves the good.   Lying is evil. Allah does not love the evil, so I want to be truthful and not lie.   Allah said in Suratu-Qaf, Ayah 18, what means: “Every word which is said is written down by the two Angels, Raqib or ^Atid.”

The Righteous Muslim

The righteous Muslim does the obligations, such as the five prayers.   The righteous Muslim does not do unlawful matters, such as lying and drinking alcohol.   The righteous Muslim does not commit crimes.   The righteous Muslim is trustworthy and does not steal.   The Muslim loves the good and hates the evil.

The Excellence of the Mosques

Imam Muslim related that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means “The best of the places on Earth are the mosques.” Muslims pray the five prayers in the mosques. They also become acquainted with each other in the mosques and thereby love each other. Allah loves the mosques, as do the prophets and the righteous Muslims.  

Good Treatment

The Muslim loves the Muslims. When the Muslim meets his Muslim brother, he says to him: “As-salamu ^alaykum” The Muslim brother responds with: “Wa ^alaykumus-salamu wa rahmatullah.” The Muslim treats the Muslims gently and politely. If his Muslim brother treated him well, he says, “BarakAllahu fik,” “May Allah bless you,” “May Allah give you good things,” or “Ahsanallahu ‘ilayk,” or “May Allah reward you with good things,” or “Jazakallahu khayra.”

Obedience to the Parents

Allah said in Surat al Baqarah, Ayah 83, what means “And be benevolent to the parents.” Also, in Surat al Isra, Ayah 23, Allah, ta^ala, said what means, “Do not say ‘uff’ to them and do not talk harshly to them, but instead speak to them in a good and gentle manner.” The Muslim deals with his parents politely and respectfully. The Muslim does not raise his voice in the face of his mother and father. The Muslim does not lie to his parents. The Muslim says, “O my Lord, forgive me and my Muslim parents and have mercy upon them, as they raised me when I was young.”

Islamic Manners

When I wake up in the morning I say: “We lived through to the morning, and the Worlds remain under the Dominion of Allah. Praise and thanks to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.” Before sleeping, I say: “We lived through to the evening and the Worlds remain under the Dominion of Allah. Praise and thanks to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.” Before starting to eat and drink, I say: “I eat and drink with the Name of Allah.” After I finish eating and drinking, I say: “Praise and thanks to Allah, who gave me food and drink, made them easy to swallow, and created an exit for them.”

Among the Traits of the Muslim

The Muslim recites the Qur’an. He loves his Muslim parents and respects them. The Muslim treats well both those who treat him well and those who do not. He helps the poor and the orphans. He honors his guests and treats his neighbor with kindness. The Muslim does not steal, or hit or insult a Muslim unjustly. The Muslim does not drink alcohol or use drugs.  

Hajj and ^Umrah

  Allah said, in Ayah 97 of Surat Al-^Imran, what means: “Allah made Hajj to the Ka^bah obligatory upon those who are able.” Hajj is among the most important matters of Islam. Performing Hajj and Umrah once in a lifetime is obligatory upon the Muslim who is free, accountable, and able. Performing them repeatedly after that time is considered sunnah. Hajj has a special merit that other acts of obedience do not have, in that it clears one of all sins, enormous and small. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Whoever performs Hajj without copulating or committing enormous sins is clear of his sins, as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him.” For this special merit to hold, one’s intention must be sincere to Allah, ta^ala; one’s...

Zakah

Allah said, in the Quran in Ayah 43 of Suratul-Baqarah, what means: “Perform the prayers and perform Zakah.” According to the Arabic language, Zakah means purification and growth. Islamically, it is the name for that which is paid in a specific way, as a result of having money, or one being alive. It was given this name because money grows by the blessing of giving Zakah, and because it purifies the one who gives it from being sinful. Zakah is among the major matters of Islam. During the second year after the migration, Allah made it obligatory. Among the items that Zakah is obligatory on are: Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats;   The staple crops. These are crops that one stores to eat in other than times of necessity, like wheat, barley, and corn;  ...

Fasting

Allah made it obligatory upon every accountable and able Muslim to fast the month of Ramadan. Allah said in the Quran, in Ayah 183 of Suratul Baqarah, what means “He (Allah) made fasting obligatory upon you.” Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha^ban in the second year after immigration. It is a great obligation and among the most important matters of Islam. The Muslims look forward to this month because it is the month of goodness, obedience, and blessings. It is also the best month of the year, and in it is the best night of the year, the Night of Qadr. Fasting is abstaining from anything that invalidates the fast during the day, along with having made the intention during the night. It is an obligation upon every pubescent,...

The Friday Prayer

Friday is the best day of the week. In a Hadith narrated by Muslim, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “Friday is the best day on which the Sun ever rose. In it Adam was created, admitted into Paradise, and taken out of it.” Allah, ta^ala, made it obligatory to pray the Friday prayer during this day. As a result, the Muslims in all the different countries gather in the main masjid of their town to pray this prayer. The Friday Prayer is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused males. Among what is considered an Islamic excuse is for the person to be sick, in a way that going to the mosque is a serious hardship on him. It is an obligation to pray the Friday Prayer in congregation if the free, pubescent, and...

Congregational Prayer

The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, encouraged performing the congregational prayer. He ordered the people to pray the five prayers in congregation in a way that anyone who wants to pray in congregation can easily find the place to do so. When people gather in obedience to Allah, great benefits do occur. Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhiyy, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means: “The congregational prayer has 27 times more reward than the prayer of an individual.” Praying every obligatory prayer in congregation is a communal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused men. Whoever wants to pray the congregational prayer steps forward to lead the others in prayer. He is called the imam—the leader....

Invalidators of Prayer

During prayer, the Muslim should be God-fearing and should avoid anything that invalidates his prayer. The invalidators of the prayer include: The praying person uttering words which do not include mentioning Allah. Uttering two letters or any letter that carries a meaning, while remembering that one is praying, invalidates one’s prayer;   Performing many moves that last for the duration of one rak^ah. According to some scholars, three consecutive moves invalidate the prayer;   Eating, even if it is little, like a sesame seed, except if one forgets;   Drinking while remembering that one is in the prayer, even if it is little, like swallowing a drop of water on one’s lips;   Performing one move, with the purpose of playing;   Performing an...

Conditions for the Validity of the Prayer

The conditions of prayer are the matters that are not party of the prayer, but must be satisfied before starting the prayer. There are eight conditions. The first is Islam: prayer is not valid from a blasphemer;   The second is to be mumayyiz; in other words, to be at the age of mental discrimination, the age at which the child understands when addressed and answers when asked;   The third is to be pure from both ritual impurities. One must have wudu’ and be clear of the states of minor and major ritual impurity;   The fourth is having one’s clothes, body, place, and what one is carrying be pure. If one prays while carrying in one’s pocket a piece of cloth that had najas­-filth on it, one’s prayer is invalid;   The fifth is to cover one’s...

The Integrals of Prayer

Prayer has integrals and recommended matters. The integrals are those matters that are part of the prayer, and if not done, the prayer is invalid. The recommended matters are the rewardable matters which, if left out, do not invalidate the prayer. They are done following in the footsteps of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. There are 17 integrals of prayer. First, to have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer and of its obligation when obligatory, and to specify the prayer which is performed for a particular reason or time; Second, to say “Allahu abkar,” hearing oneself while having the intention in the heart; Third, to stand for the obligatory prayer, when able. If unable, one prays sitting. If unable, one prays lying on one’s side. If...

Times of Prayer

Allah, ta^ala said, in Ayah 103 of Suratun-Nisa’, what means: “Certainly, the [obligatory] prayers have been prescribed to the believers to be performed at specific times.” After the belief in Allah and His Messenger, the prayer is the best deed. Allah made five prayers obligatory upon every pubescent, sane Muslim within the night and day. One has to be keen to perform them. Also, one must learn how the time of each prayer begins and how it ends. The Noon Prayer (Dhuhr) begins when the sun declines westward from the middle of the sky. It ends when the shadow of an object becomes equal to the length of that object, plus the length of its shadow, when the sun has reached its zenith. The object may be a straight wooden stick that is plunged upright into the ground....

The Ritual Impurity

The ritual impurity is of two kinds: minor ritual impurity and major ritual impurity. The minor ritual impurity is the occurrence of whatever invalidates the wudu’, such as emitting gas, urine, or feces. The major ritual impurity is the occurrence of any of the five matters that mandate the purifactory bath, which are: Emitting maniyy (semen) Sexual intercourse Menstruation Postpartum bleeding, or Giving birth There are two integrals for the purifactory obligatory bath. The first is the intention, when the water touches the first part of the body. So one intends for example: “I intend to do the obligatory purifactory bath,” or “I intend to remove the state of major ritual impurity.” The second integral is washing the entire body with water, both the skin and...

Instinja’

It is obligatory to make istinja’ from every wet material emitted from the eliminatory outlets, like urine or feces. Istinja’ is performed using pure and purifying water or a solid, dry, uprooting and unrespectable material, like a stone or paper. If one wishes to perform istinja’ by water, then, when cleaning oneself from feces, one pours the water on the outlet and rubs with one’s left hand until the najas-filth is removed. This makes the place pure. If one is performing istinja’ using rocks and the like, such as paper, one must be using a solid, dry, uprooting, pure, unrespectable material, such as a rock or paper, and wipe the outlet three times. If the three wipes are not enough to clean the area, one wipes more until the place becomes clean. One may use...

The Invalidators of Wudu’

The invalidators of wudu’ are matters which break wudu’. When one’s wudu’ is invalidated, one must make wudu’ again to pray. The invalidators are several. Materials exiting from the eliminatory outlets, such as urine, feces, gas, or stomach worms, all invalidate the wudu’. Touching the anus, vagina, or penis with one’s bare palm, or touching the skin of the marriageable woman without a barrier, also results in one’s wudu’ being invalidated. In addition, losing one’s mind by craziness, fainting, or intoxication, or sleeping without having ones buttocks firmly seated, are invalidators. If, however, one slept without a gap between one’s buttocks and the floor, then one’s wudu’ would not be invalid. The person who loses his wudu’ is prohibited to perform the...

Ablution: Its Integrals

Ablution is a condition for the validity of prayer. Allah said in the Quran, in Ayah 6 of Suratul Ma’idah, what means, “When you want to pray, wash your face, your hands and forearms up to and including your elbows, wet wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to and including the ankles” Wudu’ has six integrals. It is not valid if any of them are left out. The first integral is the intention, which takes place in the heart. It should also be simultaneous with washing the first part of the face. One says: “I now intend to make wudu’,” or the like. Next, one washes the entire face, from the normal hairline to the chin, and from one ear to the other. After, one washes the hands, up to and including the elbows. The elbow is the bone where the forearm and upper arm...

Purification from Najas-Filth

Among what is considered najas-filthy are urine, feces, blood, pus, vomit, alcohol, and the maytah, including its bones and hair. The corpse of a dead human is not najas-filthy. The najas-filth is divided into two types: detectable and undetectable. Detectable najas-filth is the najas-filth, the entity, color, taste, or smell of which is detectable, such as a drop of blood on clothing. This najas-filthy area can be purified by pouring water on it, which is pure and purifying, until the entity and properties of the najas-filth are removed. Undetectable najas-filth is the type of najas-filth that no longer has a color, taste, or smell. An example is urine that has dried on clothing without leaving any of its properties; in other words, this dry urine no longer has...